INTERPRETIVE TRAIL SYSTEM
are 6.5 kilometers of trails within the conservation area. Two of
these trails are wheelchair accessible:
The Muncey trail
are three trails where you can experience the forest habitat. The
Turtle Trail is bordered by a ravine, and winds through a mixed
deciduous woodlot. The Longhorn Trail starts in deciduous forest
and ends at a picnic area. The Potawatomie Trail tours scrub land
and mature forest.
On The Muncey Trail and The Copycat Trail there are both forest
and wetland habitats for you to enjoy!
IROQUOIAN VILLAGE AND MUSEUM
is a recreated Iroquoian Village that was opened in 1973. The name
Ska-Nah-Doht comes from the Onyotaa-ka language and means
a village stands again. The Village is based on data
that was collected and knowledge acquired from the First Nations
People. Located inside the museum are beautiful artifacts recovered
from the Kelly and Yaworski sites located in the area.
events that are held at the LONGWOODS Village and Museum include:
The battle of LONGWOODS: May 1st weekend
Night Walk with the Spirits: 3rd Saturday in August
Hike-a-thon: 1st Sunday in October
A Taste of Fall at Ska-Nah-Doht: 3rd Sunday in October
FOR EVENT INFORMATION CALL 519-264-2420
Native studies and conservation programs are available to schools
and other groups
There are many educational activities found here at the village
which provide hands-on outdoor experience for the students. Each
program demonstrates the life of the Iroquois. In addition to
the various education programs found here, you have the opportunity
to explore museum displays and games.
The possibilities are endless:
Day Programs 11/2-2 hours long
$5.00 per student or $75.00 per class
Day Programs 4-5 hours long
$10.00 per student or $150 per class
ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE
2. Traditional Games
3. Tool Making
4. Builder, Gatherer, Medicine Man
Hunting Simulation Game
2. Trade Routes Simulation Game
4. Customized workshop
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goal of LONGWOODS Conservation Area is to provide students with
an awareness and a better understanding of the natural world around
them. This is achieved by offering the students a wide variety of
educational programs. The choices range from field trips to classroom
offers a variety of activity- based field trips for the students.
Autumn Animal Amble/Fur and Feathers
Seed and Nut Search/Leaf and Petal Hike
Winter Woodland Walk
Conservation Area also offers teachers an opportunity to have staff
come to the school for classroom conservation programs. These programs
are offered seasonally and are directly related to the Ontario Curriculum.
SCHOOL CLASSROOM PROGRAMS
Birds Through the Seasons
Food Chains and Webs
SCHOOL CLASSROOM PROGRAMS
Water Conservation and the Hydrologic Cycle
The Indian/McGregor Creek Flood Control Project
Birds in the Environment
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Road Conservation Area, located 6.5 km west of Delaware on Hwy 2
(Longwoods Rd.), is a 63 hectare area consisting of extensive Carolinian
zone woodlands, ravines, a marsh wetland, streams and grassland.
The 6 km of walking or cross country ski trails throughout the area
provide ample access to the various habitats Longwoods offer. This
area is an excellent setting to learn about and experience the habitats
within Southwestern Ontario.
Grasslands are open areas where few or no trees grow. A true grassland
is sometimes called a prairie. A prairie is a long-lived grassland
that is dominated by native grasses. In comparison, the grasses
that you may see growing along the side of the road are called meadows,
they are not true prairies or grasslands.
A meadow is an open, treeless area covered by grasses and is usually
the result of a disturbance. Meadows are the first stage of forest
regeneration. These areas have hundreds of different species of
grasses and wildflowers.
Grasses make up between 50-75% of all plants found in tall grass
prairies. The most common grasses found within a Tall grass Prairie
includes: Big Bluestem, Little Bluestem, Indian Grass and Switch
grass. Some plants that can be found within this habitat include
Wild Lupine, Gray-headed Coneflower, Prairie Smoke, Wild Bergamot,
Butterfly Milkweed, Blazing Asters, Goldenrods and Sunflowers.
Before European Settlement tall grass prairies were abundant in
Southern Ontario. Now, they are endangered. Less than 3% of the
original tall grass prairies still exist in Ontario today. The
prairies were converted into agricultural fields and pastures.
However, restoration projects are underway in Southern Ontario
to help save the prairie.
Unfortunately, along with the loss of habitat comes the loss of
species. Of the plant species considered rare in Ontario, approximately
20% are associated with prairie ecosystems.
The open fields within Longwoods Conservation Area consist of gently
sloping, wide open area. In the past these areas were farmed for
corn and tobacco and the area near the park entrance was once a
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LIFE IN A GRASSLAND
Here are some species you might find in a grassland habitat:
Area in Longwoods
A wetland area is located in the stream valley at the fork of the
Mill Stream and the Iroquois Village. Pussy willows, common cattail,
white willow, sandbar willow, sensitive fern, northern maidenhair
fern, christmas fern, meadow fescue, kentucky blue grass, honeysuckle,
roundleaf dogwood, bebbs sedge, slender sedge and sallow
sedge can all be found here.
A marsh area covers much of the wide section of stream with lush
vegetation in the areas built up with sediment. Wetlands are located
on poorly drained lands which have wet to flooded soil conditions
for a part of the year. In May the area was flooded 4-6 cm, while
in June the surface water had disappeared in the centre. The ground
did remain soft and spongy, mainly due to the thick layers of humus
(a dark brown mass of partly decomposed organic matter in the soil).
A wetland is an area that has standing water at or near the surface
for most of the year. Wetlands may be located along shorelines and
riverbanks or can often be found in isolated depressions or hollows.
Wetlands are very important within nature for the following reasons:
A. Wetlands provide habitat (food, water, shelter and space) for
mammals, reptiles, amphibians and many bird species.
B. Wetlands act like a giant sponge, holding water which reduces
C. Wetlands release water slowly, supplying water to other communities.
D. Wetlands help to control erosion.
E. Wetlands act like water filters.
are four types of wetlands found in Ontario; marshes, swamps, bogs
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These are found along the edges of rivers, streams, ponds and lakes.
They support many plants that are rooted in the soil and grow out
of the water called emergent plants. Cattails and Arrowheads are
two examples of emergent plants. Marshes receive their water from
the body of water next to them, groundwater, rain or snow. As a
result of this the water levels can vary from a few centimetres
up to two metres.
Swamps can be either isolated or found along rivers, streams and
lakes. They are formed as a result of flooding during the spring
snowmelt. They are covered with water for most of the year, although
they do not flood as deeply as marshes and can dry up during periods
Some of the trees that can be seen in a swamp include Eastern White
Cedar, Balsam Poplar, Red Maple, Silver Maple, Black Ash, Tamarack
and Spruce. A variety of shrubs are located here: Alder, Willow,
Button Bush, Winterberry and Dogwood. The ground is carpeted with
mosses, ferns and wildflowers including Marsh Marigold, Skunk Cabbage
Bogs are commonly found in the northern parts of the province. They
are located in deep, bowl-like depressions and are filled with layers
of peat (slowly decaying plant material). The water becomes covered
with floating and decaying vegetation. The dominant vegetation here
is sphagnum moss. Some tree species found here are Black Spruce,
Tamarack and White Cedar. Plants include Leatherleaf, Labrador Tea,
Bog Rosemary, Blueberries, Cranberries, Three-leaved-Solomons
Seal, Sundew and Pitcher Plants.
These are areas that are usually located in low-lying areas of Northern
Ontario. Within Fens water slowly flows in and out of the peat layers.
However, fens may dry up in the warmer months. They are one of the
most interesting wildflower and insect habitats and are a great
place to find Orchids and other rare plants.
Fens are dominated by grasses, rushes, and sedges. Other plant life
consists of: Horsetails, Brown Moss, Tamarack, Black Spruce and
Birch. Wildlife within a Fen can include shrews, mice, voles, lemmings,
coyote, muskrat, raccoon, beaver and weasels.
LIFE IN A WETLAND
Here are some species that might be found in a wetland habitat:
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Conservation Area has extensive Carolinian woodlands. There are
also two plantations within the conservation area. The first is
the Conifer Plantation. This plantation is located in the center
of the park near the resource center. Conifer species such as European
Larch, Scotch, Jack, White and Red Pine and Spruce can be found
here. The second is the Deciduous/coniferous plantation located
near the cedar swamp in the northwest area.
Woodland areas are important habitat for a variety of species including
birds, reptiles, insects, amphibians and mammals. A habitat is where
plants and animals live; it is their home. These homes in the forest
can be large old hollow trees known as den trees, or standing dead
trees called snag trees. These trees are very important within the
forest ecosystem because animals like raccoons and flying squirrels
make their nest in den trees, while birds like woodpeckers nest
in snag trees.
Many nut producing trees such as oak, beech and hickory supply food
for the woodland creatures. These trees are called mast trees. Without
these trees in the forest the animals would either starve or move
to another forest that contained these trees.
Conifer trees (have cones) or evergreens are important
because they are used as shelter and cover from the snow, wind and
rain by many forest animals. Conifer tree seeds can be found in
Even dead trees have a place in the forest since all of the dead
logs and leaves on the forest floor provide habitat for insects
and amphibians, which in turn are food for other animals.
THE CAROLINIAN FOREST LIFEZONE
Carolinian Canada is one of Canadas most significant landscapes.
Often known as the banana belt, this area supports
an amazing diversity of wildlife and natural habitats. The area
has a relatively warm climate, providing suitable habitat for many
species which are not found anywhere else in Canada. The area has
the warmest average temperatures and the longest frost-free seasons
in Ontario. This results in relatively mild winters compared to
the rest of Ontario. The Carolinian forest reaches its northern
most limit in Southern Ontario.
Much of Ontarios rare and endangered species can be found
nestled away in the last remaining acres of the Carolinian Forest.
Species that can be seen here include trees such as Sassafras, the
Tulip Tree, Blue Ash, Flowering Dogwood, Chestnut, Hop Tree, Paw
Paw, Black Gum, Cucumber Tree and the Kentucky Coffee Tree. The
Green Dragon, the Creeping Fragile Fern, Swamp Rose Mallow, Lizards
Tail, Yellow Mandarin, Virginia Bluebells and Oswego Tea are a few
of Canadas rare plants existing now only within the Carolinian
Zone. Bird species, such as, the Acadian Flycatcher, Summer Tanager,
Carolina Wren and the Prothonotary Warbler can be found here. Some
mammals are restricted to this area, these include the Badger, Eastern
Mole, the Southern Flying Squirrel and the Opossum.
Unfortunately this life zone is one of the most threatened landscapes
in Ontario, covering less than 1% of Canada, but yet it is home
to more rare plants and animals than any other region in the country.
This is mainly because the species found here are at the northern
most point of their habitat. As well, these species live in developed
and settled landscapes, resulting in a minimum amount of habitat
remaining. It is found within an extremely busy corridor between
Windsor and Toronto. Urbanization, agriculture and industry have
destroyed a large portion of this beautiful forest. Because of this
the Canadian Carolinian Forest has been a focus for conservation
If you would like to learn more about the Carolinian Life Zone,
or have any questions please do not hesitate to contact:
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IN A FOREST
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Aquatic habitats are areas containing permanent water. Ponds, rivers,
and lakes are examples of aquatic habitat. Animals such as turtles
can be seen basking on logs, frogs can be heard communicating with
each other, toads can be seen hopping away, salamanders hiding,
birds flying overhead, beaver busily building, muskrats swimming
by and much more!
Aquatic habitats provide a home for many different species of plants,
insects, birds and mammals. These areas supply much food and water
for wildlife. Many mammals come to drink from the aquatic habitat.
Some may be looking for food. Next to aquatic systems you can often
find wetland vegetation species. Some examples are cattails, reeds,
grasses, willows and dogwood
mammals use the aquatic habitat for water, food and shelter. Beaver,
muskrats, mink, opossums, and raccoons are some of the mammals you
might see in or near an aquatic area. Very often you will be able
to find their tracks.
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A NATURAL AREA
You want to enjoy your
- long sleeves
- long pants
- a hat
- shoes and socks
- sun screen and bug
Many species make this area their home
- don�t litter
- take only pictures
- don�t disturb anything
- don�t pick flowers
- if you observe something
place it back where you found it
�You could trample wildlife and plants
- �don�t damage vegetation
- don�t disturb dead
wood, it is decaying
- stay away from leaflets
three, it is poison ivy
- minimize human impact
on the area
| ENJOY YOUR VISIT!
Your natural area is important to you
- the quieter you are,
the more you will see
- leave everything in
its natural setting
- come back and visit
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